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argument

Page history last edited by Reder 13 years, 4 months ago

準備重點

理解與分析七種常見的邏輯錯誤。

  • 兩件事之間的推論過於牽強
  • 把因果關係混淆為簡單的相互關係或時間順序關係
  • 誤以為群組的特真就是每個組員的特徵 (over generalization)
  • 誤以為某種條件必然和/或足以引發相對應的結果
  • 以潛在的、不具代表性的統計結果作為論證依據 (unproven assumption)
    • 抽樣組要有一定規模
    • 抽樣組在相關特點可以代表整體
  • 將不能反映真實情況的調查或民意測驗作為論證依據
    • 調查或民意測驗的結果必須真實而準確
    • 蒐集資料的方法必須公正,不帶傾向性
  • 誤以為所有事情都會永遠保持一成不變 (things might be changed)

 

more:

  • 忽略產品製造及銷售的花費

 

模板

參考範文,就可以創建出自己個人的模板。

 

開頭

推薦、建議

In the (文章類型)(人物)recommends that (建議).

To support this recommandation (人物) cites that (原因).

I found this argument logically unconvincing in several respects.

陳述

In the (文章類型)(人物)reasons that (現況), and projects that ... .

To support this projection (人物) cites that (原因).

For several reasons, I am not convinced that the (人物)'s projection is accurate.

 

論述

First of all, (第一點)

Second, Third, ...

In the second place, In the third palce, ...

Finally, (最後段)

 

中間可用:(發展順序:錯的情況→錯的理由→可能情況→但文中並沒有提到,所以錯)

  • The argument unfairly assume that ... . The author provides no evidence to substantiate this assumption. Perhaps ... . Moreover, ... .
  • The author provides no evidence of such ....
  • It is quite possible that ...
  • Even if ... , the author provides no firm evidence that ... It is entirely possible that ....
  • Even assuming that ... , the author provides no clear evidence that ...

 

結尾

In conclusion, the (人物)'s argument is not persuasive.

To bloster the recommendation the (人物) must provide better evidence that ...

To better evaluate the recommendation, I would also need more information about ...

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