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AW

Page history last edited by Reder 13 years, 7 months ago


 

topics

 

Overview

  • a 45-minute "Present Your Perspective on an Issue" task (pick 1 among 2): provide relevant reasons and examples to explain and support your views. choose one topics--> think about the issue--> plan a response-->compose your essay.
  • a 30-minute "Analyze an Argument" task: critique a given argument by discussing how well reasoned you find it. analyze the argument--> plan a critique-->compose your response. check for obvious errors.

 

The two tasks are complementary in that one requires you to construct your own argument by taking a position and providing evidence supporting your views on the issue, whereas the other requires you to critique someone else's argument by assessing its claims and evaluating the evidence it provides.

 

GRADING:

  1. readers assign scores based on the overall quality of the response, considering all of its characteristics in an integrated way.
  2. 引用別人的句子 一定要標明..如果發現有些似的句子.會標明出處..或明顯背誦..將扣分

 

ISSUE

(critical thinking and persuasive writing.)

  • 有效地識別與處理原論點的複雜性和各觀點間的牽連關係
  • 有效地組織、發展並表達你自己的見解
  • 有效地支持自己的觀點(通過列舉原因和例證)
  • 有效地支配標準書面英語的各項要素(語法、巨型以及語言的運用)

 

重要的是你怎麼樣表達並支持你的見解,而不是你的見解是什麼

 

  • Each topic, presented in quotation marks, makes a claim about an issue that test takers can discuss from various perspectives and apply to many different situations or conditions.(每個主題包含一個關於某個議題的主張,讓考生可以從多個觀點討論並應用在多個情況或狀況。)
  • present a compelling case for your own position on the issue. Be sure to read the claim carefully and think about it from several points of view, make notes about the position you want to develop and list the main reasons and examples that you could use to support that position. (從多個觀點思考主張,記下你要發展的立場與支持這個立場的主要的原因和例子。)
  • The Issue task allows considerable latitude in the way you respond to the claim. Although it is important that you address the central issue, you are free to take any approach you wish. For example, you might:
    • agree absolutely with the claim, disagree completely, or agree with some parts and not others (同意或不同意或同意部分)
    • question the assumptions the statement seems to be making (質疑聲明的假設)
    • qualify any of its terms, especially if the way you define or apply a term is important to developing your perspective on the issue (證明任何一項說法,尤其是對你的觀點重要的部份)
    • point out why the claim is valid in some situations but not in others (指出為什麼主張在某些情況下是成立,但某些不成立)
    • evaluate points of view that contrast with your own perspective (評價與你的觀點相對立的觀點)
  • develop your position with reasons that are supported by several relevant examples or by a single extended example. No right or wrong. the readers are evaluating the skill with which you articulate and develop an argument to support your position on the issue. (用幾個相關或一個延伸性的例子發展你的立場。沒有對或錯。閱卷者會評量你論述發展是否清楚)
  • You will not be expected to know specific critical thinking or writing terms or strategies; instead, you should be able to use reasons, evidence, and examples to support your position on an issue. (你應該用原因、證據跟例子來支持你的立場)
  • 對象: an academic audience.
  • 評分:
    • use of examples
    • development and support
    • organization
    • language fluency
    • word choice. 例: government should fund art museums
      • "support" your position by discussing the reasons art is important and explain that museums are public places where art is available to anyone.
      • " not support" point out that, given limited governmental funds, art museums are not as deserving of governmental funding as are other, more socially important, institutions.
      • "only under certain conditions" focus on the artistic criteria, cultural concerns, or political conditions that you think should determine how—or whether—art museums receive government funds.
      • It is not your position that matters so much as the critical thinking skills you display in developing your position.
  • 準備
    • 理解題目
    • 與自己的經驗及知識結合.找出能有說服力的例子與想法
    • 決定立場
    • 決定觀點與例子 拿到題目時問下列問題
      • What, precisely, is the central issue?
      • Do I agree with all or with any part of the claim? Why or why not?
      • Does the claim make certain assumptions? If so, are they reasonable?
      • Is the claim valid only under certain conditions? If so, what are they?
      • Do I need to explain how I interpret certain terms or concepts used in the claim?
      • If I take a certain position on the issue, what reasons support my position?
      • What examples—either real or hypothetical—could I use to illustrate those reasons and advance
      • my point of view? Which examples are most compelling?
  • 決定立場後.自問
    • What reasons might someone use to refute or undermine my position?
    • How should I acknowledge or defend against those views in my essay?
  • 選題目
    • Which topic do I find more interesting or engaging?
    • Which topic more closely relates to my own academic studies or other experiences?
    • On which topic can I more clearly explain and defend my perspective?
    • On which topic can I more readily think of strong reasons and examples to support my position?
  • 範文(p9~14)
    • 1分—邏輯相斥,文辭雜亂無章
    • 2分—立場不清,例證毫無相關,無連接
    • 3分—立場清楚,但例證不完整,與事實相反
    • 4分—例證完整適中,但有些不具說服力,邏輯性不夠強,且文字不精確
    • 5分—文章發展完整,清晰,有連接詞連接全文,文法上有小錯誤(標點符號,句型)
    • 6分—例證符合邏輯,有說服力,用字精確,譬喻生動

 

寫作的建議與禁忌

  • 要將原論點分成幾個組成部分或非連續的範圍加以考慮。
  • 要給你自己的立場留有轉圜的餘地。這可以透過證明你自己的觀點和承認其他觀點來實現。
  • 要解釋清楚你的每個例子是如何闡明你的觀點的。
  • 不要浪費時間去猜測閱卷者的立場。反之,要針對 issue 本身提出自己獨到的見解,總結自己的立場並給予良好的支持。
  • 不要勉強自己同意或否定 issue 作文題目,也要避免過於武斷或極端。處理 issue 的時候,可以把它當作一次腦力激盪,而不是當作分享個人信仰的論壇。
  • 不要過於詳細的描述某個細節,或想要照顧的面面俱到。考量時間,盡量按照提綱涵蓋更多要點,保持段落的平衡。
  • 不要過於誇張,盡量將真實經歷和學術知識加以廣泛的結合來證明論點。
  • 不要將 issue 作文當作一次關於瑣事的爭論。盡量運用閱卷者可能知曉的人名或事件來支持立場。

 

Top

 

ARGUMENT

(critical thinking, perceptive reading, and analytical writing skills)

  • 有效地辯明並分析論點的關鍵要素
  • 有效地組織、發展並表達你的評論
  • 有效地支持你的論點(通過列舉理由和例子)
  • 有效地支配標準書面英語的各項要素

除了第一點以外,其他與 issue 很類似。

 

  • discuss the logical soundness of the author's case by critically examining the line of reasoning and the use of evidence
  • pay special attention to
    • what is offered as evidence, support, or proof
    • what is explicitly stated, claimed, or concluded
    • what is assumed or supposed, perhaps without justification or proof
    • what is not stated, but necessarily follows from what is stated
    • the structure of the argument(transition)
  • point:
    • 非statements are true or accurate 是conclusions and inferences are validly drawn from the statements
    • 非agree or disagree with the position stated;是comment on the thinking that underlies the position stated.
    • 非express your own views是evaluate the logical soundness of an argument
  • 寫作技巧
    • alternative explanation
    • analysis
    • argument
    • assumption
    • conclusion
    • counterexample
  • 準備方式
    • carefully read the argument—you might want to read it over more than once
    • identify as many of its claims, conclusions, and underlying assumptions as possible
    • think of as many alternative explanations and counterexamples as you can
    • think of what additional evidence might weaken or lend support to the claims
    • ask yourself what changes in the argument would make the reasoning more sound
  • any numbers, percentages, or statistics in Argument topics are used only as evidence in support of a conclusion, and you should always consider whether they actually support the conclusion.

 

範文 (p18~22)

1分—只是換句話說論點,文法也有問題。

2分—並沒有批論批評論,小錯誤不斷

3分—前半段只是在重述論點,後面的評論有提出,但發展不夠完整

4分—抓住文章的弱點(數據推論不合理),推論清晰,但沒有連接詞。句子發展不出色

5分—開頭切中主題。推論清楚有組織性,但不夠深入詳盡

6分—開頭點出錯誤的推論會造成什麼後果。詳盡的指出論提的主要瑕疵,並且發展完全。簡潔有力

 

建議與禁忌

  • 要仔細分析並找出 argument 中至少三、四個論證或者證據方面的錯誤。
  • 要用充份的理由和/或恰當的例子來支持你的觀點。論證不要離題。
  • 不要在評論中參雜自己的主觀想法。
  • 要討論一下使 argument 的論點更有說服力還缺乏什麼,以及如何才能更深入的評論。
  • 要在你的文章中合乎邏輯地安排各論點的順序。(主要是照錯誤出現的先後順序)學會運用過渡詞或短語銜接文章的各部份。
  • 不要僅重述或變相重述 argument 的論點。應該要直截了當地說出對方的觀點錯在哪裡。
  • 不要在結尾段提出 argument 其他的錯誤。結尾段應該要重申論點或提出使 argument 更具說服力還需要什麼,以及還有哪些信息有助於你對它的評判。

 

Top

備考方式

 

在所有的作文資料中,最根本的&最關鍵的是pp3裡面對作文的說明文件以及官方範文——對GRE作文最權威的說明和解釋。

 

首先花一天時間把ISSUE和AR的大致寫法、考的是什麼能力弄清楚。當然也包括前人提到的一些基本技巧。不過這些技巧可以留一些每天看,每天消化一點。這些東西在作文版精華區都有。

然後,按照分類的題庫(比如孫遠建議的重點題目),挑選有代表性的(或者有範文的,便於對照修改進步),做全文的練習。保證至少一天一篇。

來不及全文寫的題目,每天至少要找3-5個列提綱。

寫的時候要注意控制時間,你的時間不多了,不能不掐時間地慢慢寫。寫完以後必須檢查,記下不會寫的詞和短語表達以及句型,每天注意總結。

然後對照別人寫過的文章,看看不足的地方在哪裡。

還有就是多參與、多學習各種討論,可以開闊視野,給你節省時間。

備考方略:

a 多看。看高手的文章,更重要的是看老外的文章。從中仔細捉摸體會。

b 多改。寫完之後立即改;自己改完之後再請別人改;放一段時間以後再回過頭來自己改。修改多次之後自然會有提高。

c 適當多寫。做事不但要講效率,更要講效果。寫得過了未必就有效果,很可能是在重複以前早就寫過的論點,早就用過的論據。關鍵在於寫一篇要有一篇的效果

d 最重要的,多想。gre作文考得絕不僅僅是簡單的英語寫作,而是對一個人綜合實力尤其是邏輯思考能力的考查。所以就算是手懶也不能頭懶,一定要有自己的觀點!

什麼多看多寫多改都比不過多想重要。一定要想清楚自己的弱點在那裡,寫完了也要總結為什麼不滿意,那裡有錯誤?為什麼出錯?怎麼樣去改?不一定非要別人指出來,有的時候往往我們自己不去想。多想一想,只有好處,而且節省時間,提高效率,讓你的準備更加有針對性。

(一)寫前構思

文章的寫作基礎在於對寫作目標的把握,它源於作者腦中的構思.當你端坐在計算機前準備開始動手作文時,不要忘記先問自己這幾個問題:

1.WHAT SPECIFIC POINT DO I INTEND TO MAKE?

2.IS IT WORTH MAKING?

3.FOR WHOM AM I WRITING?

4.HOW CAN I BEST CONVEY MY POINT TO MY READERS?

(二)文章的間架結構

思考晚場,開始動筆?那麼應該如何來寫呢?其實無論是中文還是英文,只要掌握好了一個基本的骨架,一切都是很容易的。

文章對於論點,有兩種敘述,GENERAL 和PATICULAR。

首段,給出基本的STATEMENT(或者我們所說的TS)就可以了,亮出你的觀點和看法(CONCLUSION,EVALUATION,WHAT YOU ASSERT OR BELIEVE IN),這樣就算解決了。不過,考慮到一個應試的問題,還有其他的一些小的注意事項,在後面的帖子裡我會講到。

接下來,分2到4段來敘述,每一個段落可以看成一個小的分論點,用FACTS,ESAMPLES,ILLUSTRATIONS ,DEFINITIONS 來支持你的論點,說明為什麼你的看法是這個樣子的,這裡不是要說服別人,而是讓閱卷人瞭解你的整個思維的體系和方式。段落的開頭給出你的分論點,到你的例子,你的分析等等,最後一個小的總結,在某個意義上來說,除了開頭和結尾的任何一個小的段落都可以看成是文章的小的縮影。

最後,一個總結結尾,扣住你的主題,大功告成。

(三)文章的寫法

如何來表達你自己呢?

曾讀到過一個關於評價MARK TWAIN的文章的評論:His pattern of pository development is clear, and it is hilariously convincing in its effect. Again, the expository writer may throw new light upon two things by comparing and contrasting them, by showing how they are alike and yet different. The expository writer, therefore, uses the common methods of logic and thinking: he comparing and contrasting, by making analogies, by restating, by giving reasons, by classifying and dividing his subject, by showing cause and effect, by defining by arguing from premise to conclusion. (以前抄下來的,具體的書不記得了)我想這就給了我們充分多的方法了吧。清晰的結構加上充分的論證。一篇好問就這樣搞定了。:D

 

 

gre的考試主要是把你當作是英語語系的人在考試,並不像是考國文或英文一樣,反而倒像是考智力測驗;你想想,你二十五歲時的智力會和三十歲時的智力相差很多嗎?所以沒啥進步不進步的問題,除非你第一次是因為一些因素(如生理)沒考好,否則學校絕對會把你之前的成績當作參考依據,如此分析,你應該就會對gre的印象重新建立了吧!可千萬不要再誤解gre了哦

托福作文主要是看這個人的文法和英文寫作能力,至於內容有道理就好,不用什麼了不起的推理或是例子;但是AWA的目的是在看這個學生的思考能力有沒有邏輯,說理清不清楚、推論正不正確,所以可以用貼切的例子就盡量用,寫得出清楚的推論就盡量寫,至於文法,雖然不是 AWA的主軸,不過至少不能錯太多,有些5、6分文章還是會有文法錯誤,不過推論真是好!其實從托福的題目跟AWA題目就可以看出來,托福題目可以是生活瑣事,真要寫還真難寫出大道理,不過AWA題目真的很多都很哲學性,看完了200多題,真的發現一堆道理都是我從沒想過的。

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